On Air and COP 26

Delhi Air composition 2015

As the pandemic keeps more people indoors, we come to appreciate the beauty of nature and how the climate is affecting us. It makes us  who were previously confined to offices and impervious to the climate outside the sad reality of our changed time. This month too Delhi had some of the worst air one can imagine such that the schools had to eventually shut. The AQI was between 300-999 and beyond from early November. A study done by IIT had delineated the composition of the air. It was found to be seasonally as a result of crop residue burning in Punjab and Haryana. The air then gradually moves towards the indo-gangetic plains, before winds carry it away further. The main component of the air in Particulate matter(PM) 10 and PM 2.5, however, was found to be road dust and that by construction, due to the fly ash component released during cement mixing. It is a marked difference from New York where transportation is a major source of emissions. Being an urban city, even emissions from domestic fuel consumption are low. This study however has not been repeated, so one wonders if the results are specific to a period in time. It does bring forth a component that construction of highways, subways, flyovers, which had been undertaken in Delhi during that period could have had extreme health hazards for the citizens. One only imagines that this dust component could not be contained, and thus dissipated into the air.

UPDATE: (17.12.21) A recent field report conducted by a leading media house of India, sent its reporters into the darkness of two nights to the streets of Delhi. They identified entry points to construction material compromised by corruption and illegal construction activities being conducted in many areas including those sanctioned by the central government ministries and NBCC, a violation of the supreme court ban on construction. Important to note that the Law and order enforcement of Delhi state is controlled by the home ministry and not the state government.


This year for the first time the COP 26 got coverage in the Indian media. This was a well advertised event and many activist organisations simultaneously undertook activities (mainly webinars). There were a little too many of them this month on the sidelines of the COP meetings. There were two major decisions during this council of parties meetings. One pertained to India revealing its pledge to be net zero by 2070 and the other was Indonesia reversing its pledge on deforestation. The elephant in the room was India and China criticised for coal consumption and projected as the largest consumers of fossil fuels, which of course is true. But what they miss is also that these countries have more people and more land compared to some tinier countries which have more emissions, the burden of which is passed on to us. They also conveniently forget the placement of India, and now China, as their cheap labour production manufacturing hubs. In a developed country if there is a power outage, you would remember that event for a decade, but here in India, even if you live in a metropolitan you are taught energy conservation from childhood. Right from the first day your parents told you to click off the light switch if you aren’t in the room, or a community living style, where many people huddled together for a single source of light or warmth. It further stretched in traditional values such as sharing clothes, passing clothes and objects to the less fortunate and more. So basically, the COP as Greta Thunberg wisely pointed out, is a global north greenwashing event. It seems more of an advertising and diplomacy party that doesn’t address or even impose sanctions on its own members. Surprising, it lasted even 25 years!

Five challenges for India in the sustainability discussion

Few days back a professor presenting to a group of us about climate change, exhibited a map showing the emissions growth over the last couple of centuries. He pointed out how an island nation in northern Europe had contributed to the climate change using fossil fuels since the early 1800s. According to professor, the carbon(CO2) once emitted stays in the atmospheric system for as long as a century and a few thousand more before it completely sinks in.

While the next few paragraphs explain what is happening in India, you may scroll down the page to get to the five trends.

Industrialisation has a deep correlation with climate change. Developing countries like India aspire to be like Europe and America, where the fruit and pace of industrialisation has translated in a great amount of monetary wealth and increased lifestyle standards. While industrial countries realise the alarming issue of the climate change as potentially irreversible in future, if not checked right away; in India, we have another story going.

The story is of development based on an increasingly capitalist economy structure which outwardly look as an attractive proposition styled in steel, cement and information technology. We have recently made some decisions which might be regrettable in the future. These include enhanced stress on coal mining and its privatisation , power generation using coal, while simultaneously pushing coal based electricity in rural areas, enhancing consumption for textile and other goods to boost economic numbers, rapid cementing of water absorbing catchment areas such as mangroves, salt pans; and of-course deforestation en mass to create highways, for infrastructure and “development”. Bill Gates, in a recent conclave , stated that curbing aspiring citizens from enhanced forms of mobility, better fertilisers, making new structure, is against “human decency”. The solutions in his opinion range from industry innovation in agriculture, through better seeds, better water management, innovation in power/steel and government policies.

India, though had its own share of climatic events throughout this year ranging from floods, cyclones and extreme heat events. A high emission scenario predicts temperatures to rise by 4oC by 2080. It increasingly requires a new thought in its policies, especially of coal and even electric (as electric technologies also rely on coal as a feeder fuel). Suggestions for hydrogen or nuclear fuels offer alternate possibilities, but more interesting are those suggested by Prof Jeff Sachs: natural elements such as solar and wind, based on geographic location.

Next, I chanced upon a report by an organisation called “UN Alliance for Sustainable Fashion”. This was launched by seven UN agencies.( UNEP, UNFCC among others)( Why are we just now hearing about it??). What is interesting is the definition of fashion by the alliance ”Fashion, as understood by the Alliance, includes clothing, leather and footwear, made from textiles and related goods.” So, basically they have put in the entire gamut of apparel and footwear into an ephemeris term of fashion (I have a quiz here which clarifies the term “Fashion”, used so loosely. At UCRF, some of us are also working on a glossary of the terms used in sustainable fashion, so hopefully we will have better definitions soon! Till then I prefer Kate Fletcher’s definition — “Fashion within planetary boundaries” as it aligns with Gro Brundtland’s definition of sustainability.)

It did however mention three points which in my opinion might affect India.

  • 8% of green house gases are caused by fashion industry (note: India contributes to 6% of the apparel industry)
  • Asia bears the burden of raw material
  • Women, almost 80% of the workforce, are at risk of being affected by occupational injuries and hazardous chemicals. Also, most affected by unemployment during the pandemic.

1. Depleting Finite Resources

  • India is a major source of emissions from burning fossil fuels such as coal for powering its electric plants but unlike its neighbour China, is doing less towards this area. The world and India itself, is soft on its self towards climate change, cashing to status of developing country filled with aspirational middle income buyers. Yes, I would be disappointed if one day if I didn’t have the coal powered electric energy to run my internet and phone to browse E Com sites providing disposable fashion (not!).
  • 2. Copycats!

  • India is rapidly forgoing its traditional organic and indigenous practices to blindly follow the discarded industrial system of the west, whereas it has an opportunity to leapfrog after learning from the problems towards new solutions.
  • 3. Borrowed Innovations

  • Indianisation required India needs to develop its own technologies rather than adopt technologies created out of western sensibilities. My mind goes to Mitti Cool. It is an indigenously developed refrigerator made from clay that works without electricity (no CFCs). Not surprisingly it has greater demand overseas than in our own country.
  • 4. Extreme heat

  • In future, India will be affected by climate change in the tropical belt, with increasing temperatures which will make living and working outdoors unbearable. Agriculture, food, plant and animal life will be affected
  • 5. Shrinking land

  • Extreme precipitation events are predicted for south India and the northern Himalayas. In future, the coastal India would be affected by rising sea-level, taking the coastal towns such as Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata under water. Maybe this explains the height of a certain rich man’s castle in Mumbai.
  • Conclusion

    India, is unusual in its structure of business with a history of cottage and small business. We need to rediscover our traditional methods of manufacturing along with retaining practices of value and letting go of wasteful practices. India with its populous billion, is like a big ship. If it is steered in a wrong direction to preserve a market for capitalist goods or a supply tank for natural resources, might lead it to disintegrate and sink. Or is it just my fear? The ideal approach is to redefine commerce and rewarding those practices which are beneficial for the environment. That means a lot of relearning and rewriting some textbooks. The Regenerating Product Life Cycle(c) might offer one such strategy, but plenty of alignments and policy directives are required to reach a sustainable future.

    September, a month filled with webinars

    The circularity discussion is gaining speed across the globe. There were more events in this month, maybe due to university session opening. Most were online as researchers have now adapted to this new medium of discussion and also opened dialogue to audiences from developing nations that may have not been included had these events happened in physical form.

    Aalto University’s Fashion Lab was held by over two sessions last week. An interesting part of this lab was the personal connect and “confessions” as part of the researcher’s plan to generate awareness about overconsumption of fashion clothing and then guide a new conscious habit through action. Here is a LINK where you can still participate anonymously to reveal your fashion confession.

    SustainEverse held a knowledge sharing session on circularity beyond recycling. I missed the first few minutes of introduction, so I do not know the panel. However, some traditional practices such as underconsumption (using a pencil till it is exhausted), recycling (newspaper raddi system in India), Upcycling (used clothes transformation by Sahas, an NGO) were given as examples by the panel. They were meant to record and email the discussion, but I’ve not received anything in my email so far.

    The 8th World Sustainable Development Conference(MDPI) and the 09th ICSD were also held this year, virtually.

    When will the third wave of Coronavirus strike India and how bad will it be?

    Further to my side interest of prediction through visual analysis; and encouraged by the on spot prediction of peak and decline of second wave of coronavirus; I’ll be attempting the prediction of the third wave of Coronavirus. However this time, I shall not be opening up this information on the blog and it will be available to only those who are interested. I’ve been working on this estimation on my own time with unique methods, so this time the report will be charged. This report will be be helpful to those who need to plan and take future decisions in business, especially those *not* in the healthcare space or essential services. To know when something will strike and how bad it will be, helps you take pre-emptive measures and also gain competitive advantage. Further you can use this report for comparative analysis along with other such reports which might be available. I’ll be attempting three predictions: India as a whole; capital territory, New Delhi and financial capital, Mumbai. It will begin with basic question if at all the third wave will strike. It will be in simple language with somewhat more detail than my previous blog article. If you wish to be considered to receive this information, please fill the form below or contact me directly through email.

    When the Second wave in India would decline and what this means for Business

    Further to my hypothesis a few weeks back regarding the peak of SARS Covid in India, it was heartening to see a decline in cases the last few days. Everyone is wondering when this pandemic would take a manageable form (if not eradicated, we still have time for that).

    Encouraged by the trend, I created projections with two assumptions: a) The lockdown continues as before till it reaches a threshold of 500 cases; b) no new mutant strain presents itself.

    The first scenario “A” assumes that the numbers provided are as per the numbers of cases in the public domain (Fig 1,2). Scenario “B” takes a more idealistic classical form with cushioning for asymptomatic or unreported rural cases (Fig 3,4).

    FIG 1. India second wave of Coronavirus
    Fig 2. Delhi Second Wave of Coronavirus

    Scenario A, provides the threshold pinpointed on the curve after which we can assume the curve will decline. So, if for eg Delhi reaches a target of 1250 active cases on 24 May, 3 days from now; and further reduces to 500 active cases by 07 Jun, we can be certain that the situation is now manageable. (How I reached the two numbers, 1250 and 500, I would require another post at a later date)

    What this means for Business. They can strategise for this scenario, rather than waiting for the government to announce an opening. They now can estimate that, Delhi for example, would have stabilised by 07 June, but incase they have supplies or vendors in other parts of the country, incase of non-essential goods and services; they might have to wait till India reaches its first threshold of 100K by 06 Jun, 70K by 09 Jun and 40K by 07 Jul to feel somewhat safe. So, they might need to look for alternatives locally instead of Pan-India for the uncertain period between 07 Jun and 07 Jul. Some business can also explore local market, if they haven’t already; stretch their business model portfolio to include essential goods and services.

    Scenario B is the projection I estimated a few weeks back, when the peak was uncertain. It follows an unencumbered organic growth of the virus based on Raymonds Pearl’s Law of growth, if there is to be such a premise. It cushions for the fact that some cases are unreported, undetected or hidden due to variety of reasons.

    Fig 3 India 2nd Wave of SARS Covid
    Fig 4: Delhi Second wave of SARS Covid

    What this means for Business. This scenario prepares for more time duration. It assumes that India is able to reduce its cases to 100K by 25 Jun and a further reduction to 50K cases occurs by 05 Jul, ultimately reaching a manageable 25K cases by mid July. It particular affects businesses with Pan-India operations in non-essential goods and categories space. Now is not a time for cold calling, telemarketing, direct marketing, travel or tourism industries. Engaging in any of the same might be considered inappropriate by the consumers and society. With most people over the country suffering or having suffered from the pandemic, excessive buying or consumption during this difficult time also channels resources away from where it might be needed most. Mental condition of the general populous might also be affected which can be oversensitive to various stimulus which are not geared towards their health and wellbeing. On the other hand, migrant labour might be affected as the pandemic strikes in the rural areas. This is a time to channel your CSR spending to “health” instead of say “education” or environment. Based on the geographic location of the business, it can look at temporary models with a social enterprise at heart. This would create value for the society and help create a long term goodwill.

    ( I’ve also resisted creating a projection for the ubiquitous third wave. Projecting a third wave is akin projecting a stock market crash with help of technical analysis. I’ll think further about it, maybe something strikes…)

    Predicting the peak in the growth of Coronavirus through visual analysis

    While my article on the regenerating product life cycle is still hopping from editor to editor of different journals, I felt it important to share a hypothesis on the growth of coronavirus second wave in India and Delhi.

    Using Bing Coronavirus tracker, during the past year, I’ve been studying the trajectory of the growth of the virus. Before you come to an assumption about my study and might even call it non-scientific, hear me out. I’ve found visual analysis extremely helpful in many cases where data is not very accurate. The pattern that a line takes, leads to the visual interpretation and forecast of what its future can be. We use this technique fairly commonly in fashion, where colour, style and silhouette are predicted by designers. What the designers do, is not unlike regression analysis, but they have a certain influence in which direction the trend might pull.

    The coronavirus however is organic, and the governance is the factor which adds some amount of control. As I said before, I’ve been trying to understand the visual aspects of the product life cycle, in particular, growth curves. So, when I observed a particular curve in the second wave of the coronavirus in India, it was unmistakable what path is might take.

    The second wave of SARS Covid in India has been taking an S shaped curve. This curve was discovered in mathematics as the visual form of the logistic function. It was later also adapted by Raymond Pearl, a biologist in the 1920s, who actually tried to promote it as the law of growth. His theory was refuted by his contemporaries, but the S shaped curve went on to be adapted to the product life cycle, the diffusion of innovation and later, the stages of development.

    Growth of the Second Wave of Coronavirus in India

    Coming back to the shape of the growth curve, this particular curve of the growth of the coronavirus in India was plotted with the data available on Bing. A further projection was created for a visual completion, assuming that the s shaped curve pattern is being followed. It is estimated that the coronavirus cases would peak between 15 May to 18 May, from 425K cases and upto 450K cases.

    Growth trajectory of Corona virus in New Delhi (second wave)

    The Delhi Growth trajectory has me a bit more worried. Its steep rise, gives us a couple of scenarios. First, a conservative one, where the trajectory gently peaks at around 38K cases a day between 8th May to 9th May; and a second one, which shoots up further still. Here, I stick to the more positive picture. Comparison with the bing chart after 22nd April, however, does not visually show this trajectory. On contrary, it shows a sort of plateauing around 25K to 27K cases a day. This difference, in my opinion is due to inadequate testing and under reporting. The numbers from Delhi and India as a whole are suspect. As citizens, we know that not everyone with symptoms is able to get tested. Also those with mild symptoms and fever are assumed to have covid under the new guidelines. Finally, asymptomatic are rarely getting tested. We just do not have enough structure to support testing for our humongous population.

    I was pleasantly surprised to also observe the predictions from IIT Kanpur on the peak to be quite similar at 38-48 lakh between May 14-18 for India. They use multiple scientific and mathematical assumptions, and surely use of more than one brain.

    Another forecast from a firm in Hong Kong predicts the peak to fall in June. Its prediction takes into account 12 other countries. A visual analysis of the chart of countries other than India, do not seem to show the same pattern. Brazil, US and Indonesia, for example show different patterns. It may be due to a different set of governance, testing method or pattern of case reporting. Hence, I wouldn’t add India to this mix. The rise of the virus in a perfect pattern in the second wave in India from 20th march, especially in the capital city of Delhi, is quite suspect and one wonders if any artificial forces were at play. Now waiting till the end of the month to revisit this hypothesis and to ascertain if Visual analysis has a future; or it can be dismissed as a load of hogwash.

    Needs and Wants. There is a difference.

    The first time I was introduced to this concept was through a lecture on Y Combinator’s Startup school that I attended in that phase of life when I thought I would next experiment with launching a startup (I did too. A couple. Still looking for technical co-founders with coding skills).

    The next thing I learnt through experience is that when you write a genuine short email to a distinguished person in the academic field, its lucky to get a response. Therefore the first time I received a reply back from Alan Kay, a visionary computer scientist, whose Dynabook and PhD research led the foundation of Graphical User Interface and later Steve Job’s iPad; I was stunned. After a series of emails, of discussions of various subjects, we touched needs and wants, and this is what he said:

    Educators also want to understand human beings, but their interest is in helping humans with what they *need* — and most humans rarely *want* what they really *need* (often because what we *need* requires a lot of work to learn)……. So making a real distinction between *wants* and *needs* is a first step. Especially for designers of all kinds.”

    This created a dilemma, especially with Y Combinator’s mantra “Make something people want.” This might have been a simplification of Paul Graham’s push to Silicon Valley entrepreneurs to talk to people, what we call is the empathy stage in Design Thinking. This leads us to a common sense question, is relying on people’s understanding of what they “want” leading us to the paradoxical situation of “wanting faster horses”.

    Post pandemic, as the term is thus used, we are in better place to differentiate our needs from our wants. We need food, but we wanted McDonalds burgers. We need water, but we substituted that feeling of cold liquid running down our throats with a carbon and sugar laden cola. We need to travel, but we wanted cars to takes there. We need to have a comforting society, but we want to be appreciated on social media through likes and upvotes. We need to earn money to fulfil our needs, but we want money instead to fulfil our wants. This is the difference.

    So what do we do? We aren’t changing society overnight, Covid is already doing that for us. I’ll try instead to create a list of some things that I wanted but never needed. I’ll be adding a comment link at the bottom with three categories. I suggest you add your unwanted artificial wants to this list as part of the comment. Then maybe we can start a conversation and get somewhere eventually.

    A new year and a new decade

    2020-2030 is the decade of action. The sustainability discussion which started in the early 70s, hopes to find action through the 17 sustainable development goals. Covid has been a disaster and an opportunity at the same time. It had many lessons for us. The impetus to reset, rebuild with resilience is being added into the business models of various companies. Many summits, webinars and conferences were held online in 2020 and that has opened the floodgates to transparency in discussion and governance. Never before has the world come together at such as pace. Lets build on this.

    Deciphering McKinsey’s Future of Fashion report. A“Use-more-buy-more” fashion economy?

    Today I’m going through “The Next Normal” a 17 page guide by McKinsey and Co.  titled “ The future of fashion”: sustainable brands and “circular” business models.

    The first indication I get that the authors are still trying to understand the meaning of circularity, is evidenced by their use of inverted comma ….“circular”. What does it really allude?

    At the first glance, the report seems developed society-centric. I still read it to gauge if anything can be applicable to India, one of the largest growing apparel market in the world.

    This is some of what was stated:

    1. Circular business models will not be an option any longer, but a necessity.
    2. Sustainability would be led by consumer awareness
    3. Pre worn clothes
    4. Pre worn luxury designer clothes
    5. Digitalisation as a sales enabler

    Some of the suggestions given by Miriam, Anna and Karl-Hendrik are absolutely superlative. It demonstrates an industry understanding of the heavily promoted R’s : Resale, Rental, Repair and Refurbishment. Karl has accurately pinpointed the importance of consumer awareness in circular business models.

    He says: “What will really move the needle on circular business models is the circular consumer experience.”

    It resounds a lot with what an industry person in India, I was recently chatting with commented :“but…would customers be willing to pay for sustainability..”

    What Miriam predicts (a style advisor; who knows exactly what you have in your cupboard and offers it for a resale for you) might work in developed countries, but I have difficulty visualising this scenario in India. I’ll explain why.

    Anyone who has opened an average middle income household clothing cupboard in India should know and understand the problem. Taking two barometers of clothing purchasers when I think fashion: My mother and my daughter (I skip myself, because I’m an aberration, strictly following Marie Kondo when it comes to clothing). Both their cupboards are overflowing with varieties of styles. They don’t wish to repeat their clothes, but would they want to buy pre-owned clothes? I guess never. Hygiene issues are too important here. Would they like to offer their clothes for sale? Maybe not. It would be sacrilegious. Yes, they do hand over clothes between family, at my mother generation; and exchange clothes between friends, in my daughters. But frankly, I suspect great apprehension if a style advisor were to take stock of my mother’s closet. A closet is a highly personal set of belongings, akin to your gmail inbox. Would you, for example, like Gmail to decide which emails to delete for you? So, would rental, resale of pre owned clothes, even by expensive brands, ever work in India?

    Some other industry specific interventions suggested by the consultants are:

    1. Cutting industry emission
    2. Cutting overproduction of garments
    3. End producer responsibility of end-of-life management
    4. Established players to take a lead
    5. Opportunity for entry of new players to the market

    This summary is then followed by the transcript of three interviews; H & M, Yerdle and Vestiare.

    H & M

    Trends:

    1. Algorithmic commerce : AI to understand consumer needs in order to produce only the right products in the right amounts and allocate them to the right place
    2. Looop: garment to garment recycling machine
    3. Renewcell: Renewcell is developing a new material called Circulose, made by gently recovering cotton from worn-out clothes
    4. Product ID: they plan to embed tags into your clothes to “swap, share, show”
    5. Post consumer waste refurbishing into new products
    6. Regenerative farming

    After listening to this interview discussion, one can clearly ascertain that H&M’s future business model is still favouring buy-more , make-more, sell-more philosophy. They plan to do this through digital and technological interventions and in future might be actively looking for consumer markets which  are open to purchase of pre-owned goods.

    (Would they survive in India with this model? Probably not. Their current romance with the Indian consumer might be short lived. Soon the cupboards would start overflowing and consumers would not know what to do with the excess garments. They are also a tad too fashionable to be passed down to the household help who’s social sphere might frown up on such styles. As the garments are not really meant to last,  would any self-respecting memsahib be pleased enough to hand these down? And> is the Indian consumer aware of the “bring back your clothes for a discount coupon at H &M”? )

    Yerdle

    Next Andy Ruben of Yerdle, seems to have a great business model which can be best described as  fashion-brand-resale-aggregation. He predicts a $50 B expansion in this market in the next 3 year in US with 33% of Gen Z favouring this mode of purchase. He does however illustrate with example of an outwear garment, the Jacket.

    IMO, for outerwear and outgrown garments, resale might just work, and seems to be working pretty well for Yerdle.

    Vestiaire 

    Max Bittner the CEO of Vestiare, a pre owned luxury apparel ecommerce company, makes some interesting points:

    1. Changing attitudes of consumers: He is of the opinion that if a 15-16 year old is doing something today, then chances are that the older demographics will be doing that in future. Like buying and selling pre owned clothes.
    2. Huge opportunity: “There is somewhere between half a trillion and a trillion dollars’ worth of luxury goods in people’s closets, and probably half of it is unworn.”
    3. Consumer Awareness: ”No one will want to wear new clothes if the process of making those clothes causes people to suffer or to lose their lives.” Max does compare the car industry with the fashion industry citing example of resale of 50% in cars. But again, clothes are not cars. They are highly personal.
    4. Durable clothing: He is however correct to estimate that people would be drawn to durable long-lasting clothing leading to the boom in the luxury industry. He justifies that one can reduce carbon emissions “by extending the life cycle of the products that you wear by nine months, you can help reduce the industry’s carbon emissions by 30 percent.”

    If we have to distill the learning for the Indian Market, we could adopt some of the following:

    1. Resale/ Rentals
      • Celebrity or high-end luxury pre-owned fashion. Both the buyers and sellers would be vastly different demographics.
      • Outerwear garments such as Jackets, or rarely worn garments such as sports or hiking wear.
      • Outgrown garments/shoes, especially for growing kids
    2. Durable clothing. We have always been a society traditionally preferring durable and long lasting clothing that can be passed over generations.

    There is definitely a big opportunity here, especially for startups. Circular Business Models are the way forward in the fashion industry, but I still prefer my own model, of Regenerative product lifecycle.

    The Regenerating Product Life Cycle

    It must have been in the late 90s when I first read Philip Kotler’s Marketing Management book during the long bus journeys to my first job as a jewellery designer. I was amazed at his definition of Fashion, Style and Fad (which I got to know only recently was developed by other scholars before him). The product life cycle in particular caught my fancy with the apt timing of exponential growth in all things product, FMCG related. We were all in the business of develop new, sell and sell more. Future meant sell more, competition meant sell faster, better and to more people. I took this learning back to the classroom, teaching what I thought at that point was how the world works and what the world expects from design. A tool to sell more, get more profit. It was not until I took a break from the standard 9 am to 5pm rat race of commuted travel, that I got time to reflect.

    The Regenerating Product Life Cycle was thus born. Not through a systematic linear methodology, but rather a collection of experiences and intuitive understanding which stems from a designer’s foresight for the future. This is what I’m currently working on, as a side project to my actual thesis.